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Significance and Use
3.1 Definitions in this standard are to be regarded as the correct ones for terms found in other ASTM standards of Committee D18. Certain terms may be found in more than one standard issued under the jurisdiction of this committee and many of these terms have been placed in this standard.
3.2 Terms that are defined in some textbooks may differ slightly from those in this terminology standard. Definitions in this terminology standard are to be regarded as correct for ASTM usage.
3.3 See for References.
3.4 Definitions marked with (ISRM) are included for the convenience of the user and were taken directly from the International Society for Rock Mechanics (see ).
3.5 A number of the definitions include symbols. The symbols appear in italics immediately after the name of the term.
3.5.1 No significance should be placed on the order in which the symbols are presented where two or more are given for an individual term.
3.5.2 The symbols presented are examples; therefore, other symbols are acceptable.
3.5.3 See for ISRM Symbols.
3.6 A number of definitions indicate the units of measurements in brackets and which follow the symbol(s) if given. The applicable units are indicated by italic capital letters, as follows:
F—Force, such as pound-force, ton-force, newton
L—Length, such as inch, foot, millimeter, and meter
M—Mass, such as kilogram, gram
T—Time, such as second, minute
3.6.1 Positive exponents designate multiples in the numerator. Negative exponents designate multiples in the denominator. Degrees of angle are indicated as “degrees.”
3.6.2 Expressing the units either in SI or the inch-pound system has been purposely omitted in order to leave the choice of the system and specific unit to the engineer and the particular application, for example:
FL−2—may be expressed in pounds-force per square inch, kilopascals, tons per square foot, etc.
LT−1—may be expressed in feet per minute, meters per second, etc.
3.7 Where synonymous terms are cross-referenced, the definition is usually included with the earlier term alphabetically. Where this is not the case, the later term is the more significant.
3.8 Grouping of Definitions and Listing of Related Terms—To aide users in finding terms, this terminology standard provides grouping of definitions and listing of related terms.
3.8.1 Groupings—Some of these groupings of definitions are consolidation, density, head, measurement, unit weight, and specific gravity.
3.8.2 Listings (see The listing of related terms might be headed by such items as )—aquifer, compaction, density, gradation, index, specific gravity, and unit weight.
1.1 These definitions apply to many terms found in the Terminology section of standards of ASTM Committee D18.
1.2 This terminology standard defines terms related to soil, rock, and contained fluids found in the various sections of standards under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D18.
1.3 Definitions of terms relating to frozen soils are contained in Terminology .
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
C150 Specification for Portland Cement
C802 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Test Program to Determine the Precision of Test Methods for Construction Materials
D558 Test Methods for Moisture-Density (Unit Weight) Relations of Soil-Cement Mixtures
D698 Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard Effort (12 400 ft-lbf/ft3 (600 kN-m/m3))
D854 Test Methods for Specific Gravity of Soil Solids by Water Pycnometer
D1557 Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2,700 kN-m/m3))
D2435 Test Methods for One-Dimensional Consolidation Properties of Soils Using Incremental Loading
D2487 Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)
D4043 Guide for Selection of Aquifer Test Method in Determining Hydraulic Properties by Well Techniques
D4044 Test Method for (Field Procedure) for Instantaneous Change in Head (Slug) Tests for Determining Hydraulic Properties of Aquifers
D4050 Test Method for (Field Procedure) for Withdrawal and Injection Well Tests for Determining Hydraulic Properties of Aquifer Systems
D4104 Test Method (Analytical Procedure) for Determining Transmissivity of Nonleaky Confined Aquifers by Overdamped Well Response to Instantaneous Change in Head (Slug Tests)
D4105 Test Method for (Analytical Procedure) for Determining Transmissivity and Storage Coefficient of Nonleaky Confined Aquifers by the Modified Theis Nonequilibrium Method
D4106 Test Method for (Analytical Procedure) for Determining Transmissivity and Storage Coefficient of Nonleaky Confined Aquifers by the Theis Nonequilibrium Method
D4186 Test Method for One-Dimensional Consolidation Properties of Saturated Cohesive Soils Using Controlled-Strain Loading
D4253 Test Methods for Maximum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils Using a Vibratory Table
D4254 Test Methods for Minimum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils and Calculation of Relative Density
D4318 Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils
D4750 Test Method for Determining Subsurface Liquid Levels in a Borehole or Monitoring Well (Observation Well)
D4943 Test Method for Shrinkage Factors of Soils by the Wax Method
D5084 Test Methods for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Saturated Porous Materials Using a Flexible Wall Permeameter
D5088 Practice for Decontamination of Field Equipment Used at Waste Sites
D5092 Practice for Design and Installation of Ground Water Monitoring Wells
D5269 Test Method for Determining Transmissivity of Nonleaky Confined Aquifers by the Theis Recovery Method
D5270 Test Method for Determining Transmissivity and Storage Coefficient of Bounded, Nonleaky, Confined Aquifers
D5878 Guides for Using Rock-Mass Classification Systems for Engineering Purposes
D6026 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
D6028 Test Method (Analytical Procedure) for Determining Hydraulic Properties of a Confined Aquifer Taking into Consideration Storage of Water in Leaky Confining Beds by Modified Hantush Method
D6029 Test Method (Analytical Procedure) for Determining Hydraulic Properties of a Confined Aquifer and a Leaky Confining Bed with Negligible Storage by the Hantush-Jacob Method
D6312 Guide for Developing Appropriate Statistical Approaches for Ground-Water Detection Monitoring Programs
D6910/D6910M Test Method for Marsh Funnel Viscosity of Clay Construction Slurries
D6913 Test Methods for Particle-Size Distribution (Gradation) of Soils Using Sieve Analysis
D7099 Terminology Relating to Frozen Soil and Rock
D7382 Test Methods for Determination of Maximum Dry Unit Weight and Water Content Range for Effective Compaction of Granular Soils Using a Vibrating Hammer
E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
ICS Number Code 01.040.13 (Environment and health protection. Safety (Vocabularies)); 13.080.01 (Soil quality in general)
UNSPSC Code 11111501(Soil)