ASTM D6311 - 98(2009)

    Standard Guide for Generation of Environmental Data Related to Waste Management Activities: Selection and Optimization of Sampling Design

    Active Standard ASTM D6311 | Developed by Subcommittee: D34.01.01

    Book of Standards Volume: 11.04


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    ASTM D6311

    Significance and Use

    The intended use of this guide is to provide practical assistance in the development of an optimized sampling design. This standard describes or discusses:

    Sampling design selection criteria,

    Factors impacting the choice of a sampling design,

    Selection of a sampling design,

    Techniques for optimizing candidate designs, and

    The criteria for evaluating an optimized sampling design.

    Within a formal USEPA data generation activity, the planning process or Data Quality Objectives (DQO) development is the first step. The second and third are the implementation of the sampling and analysis design and the data quality assessment. Within the DQO planning process, the selection and optimization of the sampling design is the last step, and therefore, the culmination of the DQO process. The preceding steps in the DQO planning process address:

    The problem that needs to be addressed,

    The possible decisions,

    The data input and associated activities,

    The boundaries of the study,

    The development of decision rules, and

    The specified the limits on decision error.

    This guide is not intended to address the aspects of the planning process for development of the project objectives. However, the project objectives must be outlined and communicated to the design team, prior to the selection and optimization of the sample design.

    This guide references statistical aspects of the planning and implementation process and includes an appendix for the statistical calculation of the optimum number of samples for a given sampling design.

    This guide is intended for those who are responsible for making decisions about environmental waste management activities.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This document provides practical guidance on the selection and optimization of sample designs in waste management sampling activities, within the context of the requirements established by the data quality objectives or other planning process.

    1.2 This document (1) provides guidance for selection of sampling designs; (2) outlines techniques to optimize candidate designs; and (3) describes the variables that need to be balanced in choosing the final optimized design.

    1.3 The contents of this guide are arranged by section as follows:

    1.Scope
    2.Referenced Documents
    3.Terminology
    4.Significance and Use
    5.Summary of Guide
    6.Factors Affecting Sampling Design Selection
    6.1Sampling Design Performance Characteristics
    6.2Regulatory   Considerations
    6.3Project Objectives
    6.4Knowledge of the Site
    6.5Physical Sample Issues
    6.6Communication with the Laboratory
    6.7Analytical Turn   Around Time
    6.8Analytical   Method Constraints
    6.9Health and Safety
    6.10Budget/Cost Considerations
    6.11Representativeness
    7.Initial Design   Selection
    8.Optimization   Criteria
    9.Optimization Process
    9.2Practical   Evaluation of Design   Alternatives
    9.3Statistical and Cost Evaluation
    10.Final   Selection
    Annex A1Types of Sampling Designs
    A1.1Commonly Used Sampling Designs
    A1.2Sampling Design   Tools
    A1.3Combination Sample Designs
    Appendix X1. Additional References
    Appendix X2. Choosing Analytical   Method Based on   Variance and Cost
    Appendix X3. Calculating the Number of Samples:   A   Statistical Treatment

    1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D5956 Guide for Sampling Strategies for Heterogeneous Wastes

    D6044 Guide for Representative Sampling for Management of Waste and Contaminated Media

    D6051 Guide for Composite Sampling and Field Subsampling for Environmental Waste Management Activities

    D6232 Guide for Selection of Sampling Equipment for Waste and Contaminated Media Data Collection Activities

    E135 Terminology Relating to Analytical Chemistry for Metals, Ores, and Related Materials

    E943 Terminology Relating to Biological Effects and Environmental Fate


    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 81141500(Quality control); 77100000(Environmental management)


    DOI: 10.1520/D6311-98R09

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