Active Standard ASTM D6311 | Developed by Subcommittee: D34.01.01
Book of Standards Volume: 11.04
Historical (view previous versions of standard)
Significance and Use
The intended use of this guide is to provide practical assistance in the development of an optimized sampling design. This standard describes or discusses:
Sampling design selection criteria,
Factors impacting the choice of a sampling design,
Selection of a sampling design,
Techniques for optimizing candidate designs, and
The criteria for evaluating an optimized sampling design.
Within a formal USEPA data generation activity, the planning process or Data Quality Objectives (DQO) development is the first step. The second and third are the implementation of the sampling and analysis design and the data quality assessment. Within the DQO planning process, the selection and optimization of the sampling design is the last step, and therefore, the culmination of the DQO process. The preceding steps in the DQO planning process address:
The problem that needs to be addressed,
The possible decisions,
The data input and associated activities,
The boundaries of the study,
The development of decision rules, and
The specified the limits on decision error.
This guide is not intended to address the aspects of the planning process for development of the project objectives. However, the project objectives must be outlined and communicated to the design team, prior to the selection and optimization of the sample design.
This guide references statistical aspects of the planning and implementation process and includes an appendix for the statistical calculation of the optimum number of samples for a given sampling design.
This guide is intended for those who are responsible for making decisions about environmental waste management activities.
1.1 This document provides practical guidance on the selection and optimization of sample designs in waste management sampling activities, within the context of the requirements established by the data quality objectives or other planning process.
1.2 This document (1) provides guidance for selection of sampling designs; (2) outlines techniques to optimize candidate designs; and (3) describes the variables that need to be balanced in choosing the final optimized design.
1.3 The contents of this guide are arranged by section as follows:
|4.||Significance and Use|
|5.||Summary of Guide|
|6.||Factors Affecting Sampling Design Selection|
|6.1||Sampling Design Performance Characteristics|
|6.4||Knowledge of the Site|
|6.5||Physical Sample Issues|
|6.6||Communication with the Laboratory|
|6.7||Analytical Turn Around Time|
|6.8||Analytical Method Constraints|
|6.9||Health and Safety|
|7.||Initial Design Selection|
|9.2||Practical Evaluation of Design Alternatives|
|9.3||Statistical and Cost Evaluation|
|Annex A1||Types of Sampling Designs|
|A1.1||Commonly Used Sampling Designs|
|A1.2||Sampling Design Tools|
|A1.3||Combination Sample Designs|
|Appendix X1. Additional References|
|Appendix X2. Choosing Analytical Method Based on Variance and Cost|
|Appendix X3. Calculating the Number of Samples: A Statistical Treatment|
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D5956 Guide for Sampling Strategies for Heterogeneous Wastes
D6044 Guide for Representative Sampling for Management of Waste and Contaminated Media
D6051 Guide for Composite Sampling and Field Subsampling for Environmental Waste Management Activities
D6232 Guide for Selection of Sampling Equipment for Waste and Contaminated Media Data Collection Activities
E135 Terminology Relating to Analytical Chemistry for Metals, Ores, and Related Materials
E943 Terminology Relating to Biological Effects and Environmental Fate