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Significance and Use
Although many technical papers address topics important to efficient and accurate sampling investigations (DQO's, study design, QA/QC, data assessment; see Guides D 4687
The choice of sampling equipment can be crucial to the task of collecting a sample appropriate for the intended use.
When a sample is collected, all sources of potential bias should be considered, not only in the selection and use of the sampling device, but also in the interpretation and use of the data generated. Some major considerations in the selection of sampling equipment for the collection of a sample are listed below.
The ability to access and extract from every relevant location in the target population,
The ability to collect a sufficient mass of sample such that the distribution of particle sizes in the population are represented, and
The ability to collect a sample without the addition or loss of constituents of interest.
The characteristics discussed in 5.3 are particularly important in investigations when the target population is heterogeneous such as when particle sizes vary, liquids are present in distinct phases, a gaseous phase exists or material from different sources are present in the population. The consideration of these characteristics during the equipment selection process will enable the data user to make appropriate statistical inferences about the target population based on the sampling results.
1.1 This guide covers criteria which should be considered when selecting sampling equipment for collecting environmental and waste samples for waste management activities. This guide includes a list of equipment that is used and is readily available. Many specialized sampling devices are not specifically included in this guide. However, the factors that should be weighed when choosing any piece of equipment are covered and remain the same for the selection of any piece of equipment. Sampling equipment described in this guide includes automatic samplers, pumps, bailers, tubes, scoops, spoons, shovels, dredges, coring and augering devices. The selection of sampling locations is outside the scope of this guide.
1.1.1 Table 1 lists selected equipment and its applicability to sampling matrices, including water (surface and ground), sediments, soils, liquids, multi-layered liquids, mixed solid-liquid phases, and consolidated and unconsolidated solids. The guide does not address specifically the collection of samples of any suspended materials from flowing rivers or streams. Refer to Guide D 4411
1.2 Table 2 presents the same list of equipment and its applicability for use based on compatibility of sample and equipment; volume of the sample required; physical requirements such as power, size, and weight; ease of operation and decontamination; and whether it is reusable or disposable.
1.3 Table 3 provides the basis for selection of suitable equipment by the use of an Index.
1.4 Lists of advantages and disadvantages of selected sampling devices and line drawings and narratives describing the operation of sampling devices are also provided.
1.5 The values stated in both inch-pound and SI units are to be regarded separately as the standard units. The values given in parentheses are for information only.
1.6 This guide offers an organized collection of information or a series of options and does not recommend a specific course of action. This document cannot replace education or experience and should be used in con junction with professional judgement. Not all aspects of this guide may be applicable in all circumstances. This ASTM standard is not intended to represent or replace the standard of care by which the adequacy of a given professional service must be judged, nor should this document be applied without consideration of a project's many unique aspects. The word “Standard” in the title of this document means only that the document has been approved through the ASTM consensus process.
1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D1452 Practice for Soil Exploration and Sampling by Auger Borings
D1586 Test Method for Penetration Test (SPT) and Split-Barrel Sampling of Soils
D1587 Practice for Thin-Walled Tube Sampling of Soils for Geotechnical Purposes
D3550 Practice for Thick Wall, Ring-Lined, Split Barrel, Drive Sampling of Soils
D4136 Practice for Sampling Phytoplankton with Water-Sampling Bottles
D4342 Practice for Collecting of Benthic Macroinvertebrates with Ponar Grab Sampler
D4343 Practice for Collecting Benthic Macroinvertebrates with Ekman Grab Sampler
D4348 Practice for Collecting Benthic Macroinvertebrates with Holme (Scoop) Grab Sampler
D4387 Guide for Selecting Grab Sampling Devices for Collecting Benthic Macroinvertebrates
D4411 Guide for Sampling Fluvial Sediment in Motion
D4448 Guide for Sampling Ground-Water Monitoring Wells
D4547 Guide for Sampling Waste and Soils for Volatile Organic Compounds
D4687 Guide for General Planning of Waste Sampling
D4696 Guide for Pore-Liquid Sampling from the Vadose Zone
D4700 Guide for Soil Sampling from the Vadose Zone
D4823 Guide for Core Sampling Submerged, Unconsolidated Sediments
D5013 Practices for Sampling Wastes from Pipes and Other Point Discharges
D5079 Practices for Preserving and Transporting Rock Core Samples
D5088 Practice for Decontamination of Field Equipment Used at Waste Sites
D5283 Practice for Generation of Environmental Data Related to Waste Management Activities: Quality Assurance and Quality Control Planning and Implementation
D5314 Guide for Soil Gas Monitoring in the Vadose Zone
D5358 Practice for Sampling with a Dipper or Pond Sampler
D5451 Practice for Sampling Using a Trier Sampler
D5495 Practice for Sampling With a Composite Liquid Waste Sampler (COLIWASA)
D5633 Practice for Sampling with a Scoop
D5679 Practice for Sampling Consolidated Solids in Drums or Similar Containers
D5680 Practice for Sampling Unconsolidated Solids in Drums or Similar Containers
D5730 Guide for Site Characterization for Environmental Purposes With Emphasis on Soil, Rock, the Vadose Zone and Groundwater
D5743 Practice for Sampling Single or Multilayered Liquids, With or Without Solids, in Drums or Similar Containers
D5778 Test Method for Electronic Friction Cone and Piezocone Penetration Testing of Soils
D5781 Guide for Use of Dual-Wall Reverse-Circulation Drilling for Geoenvironmental Exploration and the Installation of Subsurface Water-Quality Monitoring Devices
D5782 Guide for Use of Direct Air-Rotary Drilling for Geoenvironmental Exploration and the Installation of Subsurface Water-Quality Monitoring Devices
D5783 Guide for Use of Direct Rotary Drilling with Water-Based Drilling Fluid for Geoenvironmental Exploration and the Installation of Subsurface Water-Quality Monitoring Devices
D5784 Guide for Use of Hollow-Stem Augers for Geoenvironmental Exploration and the Installation of Subsurface Water-Quality Monitoring Devices
D5875 Guide for Use of Cable-Tool Drilling and Sampling Methods for Geoenvironmental Exploration and Installation of Subsurface Water-Quality Monitoring Devices
D5876 Guide for Use of Direct Rotary Wireline Casing Advancement Drilling Methods for Geoenvironmental Exploration and Installation of Subsurface Water-Quality Monitoring Devices
D6001 Guide for Direct-Push Ground Water Sampling for Environmental Site Characterization
D6009 Guide for Sampling Waste Piles
D6044 Guide for Representative Sampling for Management of Waste and Contaminated Media
D6051 Guide for Composite Sampling and Field Subsampling for Environmental Waste Management Activities
D6063 Guide for Sampling of Drums and Similar Containers by Field Personnel
D6151 Practice for Using Hollow-Stem Augers for Geotechnical Exploration and Soil Sampling
D6169 Guide for Selection of Soil and Rock Sampling Devices Used With Drill Rigs for Environmental Investigations
D6282 Guide for Direct Push Soil Sampling for Environmental Site Characterizations
D6286 Guide for Selection of Drilling Methods for Environmental Site Characterization
D6418 Practice for Using the Disposable En Core Sampler for Sampling and Storing Soil for Volatile Organic Analysis
D6538 Guide for Sampling Wastewater With Automatic Samplers
D6634 Guide for the Selection of Purging and Sampling Devices for Ground-Water Monitoring Wells
D6640 Practice for Collection and Handling of Soils Obtained in Core Barrel Samplers for Environmental Investigations
D6699 Practice for Sampling Liquids Using Bailers
D6759 Practice for Sampling Liquids Using Grab and Discrete Depth Samplers
D6771 Practice for Low-Flow Purging and Sampling for Wells and Devices Used for Ground-Water Quality Investigations
D6907 Practice for Sampling Soils and Contaminated Media with Hand-Operated Bucket Augers
E300 Practice for Sampling Industrial Chemicals
E1391 Guide for Collection, Storage, Characterization, and Manipulation of Sediments for Toxicological Testing and for Selection of Samplers Used to Collect Benthic Invertebrates
ICS Number Code 13.030.30 (Special wastes)
UNSPSC Code 77101505(Environmental monitoring)