Active Standard ASTM D4700 | Developed by Subcommittee: D18.21
Book of Standards Volume: 04.08
Historical (view previous versions of standard)
Significance and Use
Chemical analyses of liquids, solids, and gases from the vadose zone can provide information on the presence, possible source, migration route, and physical-chemical behavior of contaminants. Remedial or mitigating measures can be formulated based on this information. This guide describes devices and procedures that can be used to obtain vadose zone soil samples.
Soil sampling is useful for the reasons presented in Section 1. However, it should be recognized that the general method is destructive, and that resampling at an exact location is not possible. Therefore, if a long term monitoring program is being designed, other methods for obtaining samples should be considered.
1.1 This guide covers procedures that may be used for obtaining soil samples from the vadose zone (unsaturated zone). Samples can be collected for a variety of reasons including the following:
1.1.1 Stratigraphic description,
1.1.2 Hydraulic conductivity testing,
1.1.3 Moisture content measurement,
1.1.4 Moisture release curve construction,
1.1.5 Geotechnical testing,
1.1.6 Soil gas analyses,
1.1.7 Microorganism extraction, or
1.1.8 Pore liquid and soils chemical analyses.
1.2 This guide focuses on methods that provide soil samples for chemical analyses of the soil or contained liquids or contaminants. However, comments on how methods may be modified for other objectives are included.
1.3 This guide does not describe sampling methods for lithified deposits and rocks (for example, sandstone, shale, tuff, granite).
1.4 In general, it is prudent to perform all field work with at least two people present. This increases safety and facilitates efficient data collection.
This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.6 This guide offers an organized collection of information or a series of options and does not recommend a specific course of action. This document cannot replace education or experience and should be used in conjunction with professional judgment. Not all aspects of this guide may be applicable in all circumstances. This ASTM standard is not intended to represent or replace the standard of care by which the adequacy of a given professional service must be judged, nor should this document be applied without consideration of a project's many unique aspects. The word "Standard" in the title of this document means only that the document has been approved through the ASTM consensus process.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D653 Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
D1452 Practice for Soil Exploration and Sampling by Auger Borings
D1586 Test Method for Penetration Test (SPT) and Split-Barrel Sampling of Soils
D1587 Practice for Thin-Walled Tube Sampling of Soils for Geotechnical Purposes
D2488 Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)
D3550 Practice for Thick Wall, Ring-Lined, Split Barrel, Drive Sampling of Soils
D4220 Practices for Preserving and Transporting Soil Samples
ICS Number Code 07.060 (Geology. Meteorology. Hydrology)