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Significance and Use
5.1 This test method assigns an empirical value to the relative amount, fineness, and character of claylike material present in the test specimen.
5.2 A minimum sand equivalent value may be specified to limit the permissible quantity of claylike or clay size fines in an aggregate.
5.3 This test method provides a rapid field method for determining changes in the quality of aggregates during production or placement.
Note 3: The quality of the results produced by this standard are dependant upon the competence of the personnel performing the procedure and the capability, calibration, and the maintenance of the equipment used. Agencies that meet the criteria of Practice are generally considered capable of competent and objective testing/sampling/inspection/etc. Users of this standard are cautioned that compliance with Practice alone does not completely assure reliable results. Reliable results depend on many factors: following the suggestions of Practice or similar acceptable guideline provides a means of evaluating and controlling some of those factors.
1.1 This test method is intended to serve as a rapid field-correlation test. The purpose of this test method is to indicate, under standard conditions, the relative proportions of clay-size or plastic fines and dust in granular soils and fine aggregates that pass the 4.75-mm (No. 4) sieve. The term “sand equivalent” expresses the concept that most granular soils and some fine aggregates are mixtures of desirable coarse particles, sand-size particles, and generally undesirable clay or plastic fines and dust.
Note 1: For fine aggregates containing clean dust of fracture (clay-size particles that are not clay minerals), test results will depend on the amount of fines present in the material. In this case other tests such as Methylene Blue Value (AASHTO T330) or X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) may be needed to determine if the fines are deleterious.
Note 2: Some agencies perform the test on material with a top size smaller than the 4.75-mm (No. 4) sieve. This is done to avoid trapping the clay-size or plastic fines and dust below flaky shaped 4.75 to 2.36 mm (No. 4 to 8) sized particles. Testing smaller top sized material may lower the numerical results of the test.
1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
1.2.1 Regarding sieves, per Specification Section 1.2, “the values stated in SI units shall be considered standard for the dimensions of the wire cloth openings and the diameter of the wires used in the wire cloth. The values stated in inchpound units shall be considered standard with regard to the sieve frames.” When sieve mesh sizes are referenced, the alternate inch-pound designations are provided for information purposes and enclosed in parentheses.
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
C670 Practice for Preparing Precision and Bias Statements for Test Methods for Construction Materials
C702 Practice for Reducing Samples of Aggregate to Testing Size
D8 Terminology Relating to Materials for Roads and Pavements
D75 Practice for Sampling Aggregates
D653 Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
D3666 Specification for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Testing and Inspecting Road and Paving Materials
E11 Specification for Woven Wire Test Sieve Cloth and Test Sieves
ICS Number Code 93.020 (Earth works. Excavations. Foundation construction. Underground works)
UNSPSC Code 30111800(Aggregates)