Active Standard ASTM D2270 | Developed by Subcommittee: D02.07
Book of Standards Volume: 05.01
Historical (view previous versions of standard)
Significance and Use
The viscosity index is a widely used and accepted measure of the variation in kinematic viscosity due to changes in the temperature of a petroleum product between 40 and 100°C.
A higher viscosity index indicates a smaller decrease in kinematic viscosity with increasing temperature of the lubricant.
The viscosity index is used in practice as a single number indicating temperature dependence of kinematic viscosity.
Viscosity Index is sometimes used to characterize base oils for purposes of establishing engine testing requirements for engine oil performance categories.
1.1 This practice covers the procedures for calculating the viscosity index of petroleum products, such as lubricating oils, and related materials from their kinematic viscosities at 40 and 100°C.
Note 1—The results obtained from the calculation of VI from kinematic viscosities determined at 40 and 100°C are virtually the same as those obtained from the former VI system using kinematic viscosities determined at 37.78 and 98.89°C.
1.2 This practice does not apply to petroleum products with kinematic viscosities less than 2.0 mm2/s at 100°C. Table 1 given in this practice applies to petroleum products with kinematic viscosities between 2 and 70 mm2/s at 100°C. Equations are provided for calculating viscosity index for petroleum products having kinematic viscosities above 70 mm2/s at 100°C.
1.2.1 In cases where kinematic viscosity data are not available at temperatures of 40 and 100°C, an estimate may be made of the viscosity index by calculating the kinematic viscosity at temperatures of 40 and 100°C from data obtained at other temperatures. Such viscosity index data may be considered as suitable for information only and not for specification purposes. See Test Method D341, Annex A1.
1.3 The kinematic viscosity values are determined with reference to a value of 1.0034 mm2/s at 20.00°C for distilled water. The determination of the kinematic viscosity of a petroleum product shall be carried out in accordance with Test Methods D445, D7042, IP 71, or ISO 3104.
1.3.1 If Viscosity Index calculated for a given sample using kinematic viscosity measurements from different test methods are in disagreement, the values calculated from Test Method measurements shall be accepted.
1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.4.1 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. For user reference, 1 mm2/s = 10-6m2/s = 1 cSt.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D341 Practice for Viscosity-Temperature Charts for Liquid Petroleum Products
D445 Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity)
D1695 Terminology of Cellulose and Cellulose Derivatives
D7042 Test Method for Dynamic Viscosity and Density of Liquids by Stabinger Viscometer (and the Calculation of Kinematic Viscosity)
E29 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data to Determine Conformance with Specifications
ISO StandardsISO3104 Petroleum Products--Transparent and Opaque Liquids--Determination of Kinematic Viscosity and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity
Energy Institute StandardIP71 Determination of Kinematic Viscosity and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity
ICS Number Code 17.060 (Measurement of volume, mass, density, viscosity)
UNSPSC Code 15101500(Petroleum and distillates)