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Significance and Use
5.1 This test method provides information on the uniaxial tensile properties and tensile stress-strain response of a ceramic composite tube—tensile strength and strain, fracture strength and strain, proportional limit stress and strain, tensile elastic modulus, etc. The information may be used for material development, material comparison, quality assurance, characterization, and design data generation.
5.2 Continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic composites (CFCC) are composed of continuous ceramic-fiber directional (1-D, 2-D, and 3-D) reinforcements in a fine grain-sized (<50 micron) ceramic matrix with controlled porosity. Often these composites have an engineered thin (0.1 to 10 microns) interface coating on the fibers to produce crack deflection and fiber pull-out. These ceramic composites offer high temperature stability, inherent damage tolerance, and high degrees of wear and corrosion resistance. As such, these ceramic composites are particularly suited for aerospace and high temperature structural applications. (1, 2)3
5.3 CFCC components have a distinctive and synergistic combination of material properties, interface coatings, porosity control, composite architecture (1-D, 2-D, and 3-D), and geometric shape that are generally inseparable. Prediction of the mechanical performance of CFCC tubes (particularly with braid and 3-D weave architectures) cannot be made by applying measured properties from flat CFCC plates to the design of tubes. Direct uniaxial tensile strength tests of CFCC tubes are needed to provide reliable information on the mechanical behavior and strength of tube geometries.
5.4 CFCCs generally experience “graceful” fracture from a cumulative damage process, unlike monolithic advanced ceramics which fracture catastrophically from a single dominant flaw. The tensile behavior and strength of a CFCC are dependent on its inherent resistance to fracture, the presence of flaws, and any damage accumulation processes. These factors are affected by the composite material composition and variability in material and testing—components, reinforcement architecture and volume fraction, porosity content, matrix morphology, interface morphology, methods of material fabrication, test specimen preparation and conditioning, and surface condition.
5.5 The results of tensile tests of test specimens fabricated to standardized dimensions from a particular material or selected portions of a part, or both, may not totally represent the strength and deformation properties of the entire, full-size end product or its in-service behavior in different environments.
5.6 For quality control purposes, results derived from standardized tubular tensile test specimens may be considered indicative of the response of the material from which they were taken from, given primary processing conditions and post-processing heat treatments.
1.1 This test method determines the axial tensile strength and stress-strain response of continuous fiber-reinforced advanced ceramic composite tubes at ambient temperature under monotonic loading. This test method is specific to tube geometries, because fiber architecture and specimen geometry factors are often distinctly different in composite tubes, as compared to flat plates.
1.2 In the test method a composite tube/cylinder with a defined gage section and a known wall thickness is fitted/bonded into a loading fixture. The test specimen/fixture assembly is mounted in the testing machine and monotonically loaded in uniaxial tension at ambient temperature while recording the tensile force and the strain in the gage section. The axial tensile strength and the fracture strength are determined from the maximum applied force and the fracture force. The strains, the proportional limit stress, and the tensile modulus of elasticity are determined from the stress-strain data.
1.3 This test method applies primarily to advanced ceramic matrix composite tubes with continuous fiber reinforcement: uni-directional (1-D, filament wound and tape lay-up), bi-directional (2-D, fabric/tape lay-up and weave), and tri-directional (3-D, braid and weave). These types of ceramic matrix composites are composed of a wide range of ceramic fibers (oxide, graphite, carbide, nitride, and other compositions) in a wide range of crystalline and amorphous ceramic matrix compositions (oxide, carbide, nitride, carbon, graphite, and other compositions).
1.4 This test method does not directly address discontinuous fiber-reinforced, whisker-reinforced or particulate-reinforced ceramics, although the test methods detailed here may be equally applicable to these composites.
1.5 The test method describes a range of test specimen tube geometries based on past tensile testing of ceramic composite tubes. These geometries are applicable to tubes with outer diameters of 10 to 150 mm and wall thicknesses of 1 to 25 mm, where the ratio of the outer diameter-to-wall thickness (dO /t) is typically between 5 and 30.
1.6 The test method addresses test equipment, gripping methods, testing modes, allowable bending stresses, interferences, tubular test specimen geometries, test specimen preparation, test procedures, data collection, calculation, reporting requirements, and precision/bias in the following sections.
Summary of Test Method
Significance and Use
Calculation of Results
Precision and Bias
Test Specimen Geometry
Grip Fixtures and Load Train Couplers
Allowable Bending and Load Train Alignment
Test Modes and Rates
1.8 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific precautionary statements are given in Section 8.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
C1145 Terminology of Advanced Ceramics
C1239 Practice for Reporting Uniaxial Strength Data and Estimating Weibull Distribution Parameters for Advanced Ceramics
C1273 Test Method for Tensile Strength of Monolithic Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperatures
C1557 Test Method for Tensile Strength and Youngs Modulus of Fibers
D3878 Terminology for Composite Materials
D5450 Test Method for Transverse Tensile Properties of Hoop Wound Polymer Matrix Composite Cylinders
E4 Practices for Force Verification of Testing Machines
E6 Terminology Relating to Methods of Mechanical Testing
E83 Practice for Verification and Classification of Extensometer Systems
E122 Practice for Calculating Sample Size to Estimate, With Specified Precision, the Average for a Characteristic of a Lot or Process
E251 Test Methods for Performance Characteristics of Metallic Bonded Resistance Strain Gauges
E337 Test Method for Measuring Humidity with a Psychrometer (the Measurement of Wet- and Dry-Bulb Temperatures)
E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
E1012 Practice for Verification of Testing Frame and Specimen Alignment Under Tensile and Compressive Axial Force Application
ICS Number Code 81.060.30 (Advanced ceramics)
ASTM C1773-13, Standard Test Method for Monotonic Axial Tensile Behavior of Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Advanced Ceramic Tubular Test Specimens at Ambient Temperature, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2013, www.astm.orgBack to Top