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Significance and Use
This test method is used to determine the mechanical properties in flexure of engineered ceramic components with multiple longitudinal hollow channels, commonly described as “honeycomb” channel architectures. The components generally have 30 % or more porosity and the cross-sectional dimensions of the honeycomb channels are on the order of 1 millimeter or greater.
The experimental data and calculated strength values from this test method are used for material and structural development, product characterization, design data, quality control, and engineering/ production specifications.
Note 1—Flexure testing is the preferred method for determining the nominal “tensile fracture” strength of these components, as compared to a compression (crushing) test. A nominal tensile strength is required, because these materials commonly fail in tension under thermal gradient stresses. A true tensile test is difficult to perform on these honeycomb specimens because of gripping and alignment challenges.
The mechanical properties determined by this test method are both material and architecture dependent, because the mechanical response and strength of the porous test specimens are determined by a combination of inherent material properties and microstructure and the architecture of the channel porosity [porosity fraction/relative density, channel geometry (shape, dimensions, cell wall thickness, etc.), anisotropy and uniformity, etc.] in the specimen. Comparison of test data must consider both differences in material/composition properties as well as differences in channel porosity architecture between individual specimens and differences between and within specimen lots.
1.1 This test method covers the determination of the flexural strength (modulus of rupture in bending) at ambient conditions of advanced ceramic structures with 2-dimensional honeycomb channel architectures.
1.2 The test method is focused on engineered ceramic components with longitudinal hollow channels, commonly called “honeycomb” channels. (See Fig. 1.) The components generally have 30 % or more porosity and the cross-sectional dimensions of the honeycomb channels are on the order of 1 millimeter or greater. Ceramics with these honeycomb structures are used in a wide range of applications (catalytic conversion supports (1), high temperature filters (2, 3), combustion burner plates (4), energy absorption and damping (5), etc.). The honeycomb ceramics can be made in a range of ceramic compositions
1.3 The test method describes two test specimen geometries for determining the flexural strength (modulus of rupture) for a porous honeycomb ceramic test specimen (see Fig. 2):
1.3.1 Test Method A—A 4-point or 3-point bending test with user-defined specimen geometries, and
1.3.2 Test Method B—A 4-point- ¼ point bending test with a defined rectangular specimen geometry (13 mm × 25 mm × > 116 mm) and a 90 mm outer support span geometry suitable for cordierite and silicon carbide honeycombs with small cell sizes.
1.4 The test specimens are stressed to failure and the breaking force value, specimen and cell dimensions, and loading geometry data are used to calculate a nominal beam strength, a wall fracture strength, and a honeycomb structure strength.
1.5 Test results are used for material and structural development, product characterization, design data, quality control, and engineering/production specifications.
1.6 The test method is meant for ceramic materials that are linear-elastic to failure in tension. The test method is not applicable to polymer or metallic porous structures that fail in an elastomeric or an elastic-ductile manner.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
C373 Test Method for Water Absorption, Bulk Density, Apparent Porosity, and Apparent Specific Gravity of Fired Whiteware Products
C1145 Terminology of Advanced Ceramics
C1161 Test Method for Flexural Strength of Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperature
C1198 Test Method for Dynamic Youngs Modulus, Shear Modulus, and Poissons Ratio for Advanced Ceramics by Sonic Resonance
C1239 Practice for Reporting Uniaxial Strength Data and Estimating Weibull Distribution Parameters for Advanced Ceramics
C1259 Test Method for Dynamic Youngs Modulus, Shear Modulus, and Poissons Ratio for Advanced Ceramics by Impulse Excitation of Vibration
C1292 Test Method for Shear Strength of Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperatures
C1341 Test Method for Flexural Properties of Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Advanced Ceramic Composites
C1368 Test Method for Determination of Slow Crack Growth Parameters of Advanced Ceramics by Constant Stress-Rate Strength Testing at Ambient Temperature
C1525 Test Method for Determination of Thermal Shock Resistance for Advanced Ceramics by Water Quenching
C1576 Test Method for Determination of Slow Crack Growth Parameters of Advanced Ceramics by Constant Stress Flexural Testing (Stress Rupture) at Ambient Temperature
D2344/D2344M Test Method for Short-Beam Strength of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials and Their Laminates
E4 Practices for Force Verification of Testing Machines
E6 Terminology Relating to Methods of Mechanical Testing
E177 Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods
E337 Test Method for Measuring Humidity with a Psychrometer (the Measurement of Wet- and Dry-Bulb Temperatures)
E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
ICS Number Code 81.060.30 (Advanced ceramics)