Significance and Use
5.1 The post-crack behavior of plate-like, fiber-reinforced concrete structural members is well represented by a centrally loaded round panel test specimen that is simply supported on three pivots symmetrically arranged around its circumference. Such a test panel experiences bi-axial bending in response to a central point load and exhibits a mode of failure related to the in situ behavior of structures. The post-crack performance of round panels subject to a central point load can be represented by the energy absorbed by the panel up to a specified central deflection. In this test method, the energy absorbed up to a specified central deflection is taken to represent the ability of a fiber-reinforced concrete to redistribute stress following cracking.
—The use of three pivoted point supports in the test configuration results in determinate out-of-plane reactions prior to cracking, however the support reactions are indeterminate after cracking due to the unknown distribution of flexural resistance along each crack. There is also a change in the load resistance mechanism in the specimen as the test proceeds, starting with predominantly flexural resistance and progressing to tensile membrane action around the center as the imposed deflection is increased. The energy absorbed up to a specified central deflection is related to the toughness of the material but is specific to this specimen configuration because it is also determined by the support conditions and size of the specimen. Selection of the most appropriate central deflection to specify depends on the intended application for the material. The energy absorbed up to 5 mm central deflection is applicable to situations in which the material is required to hold cracks tightly closed at low levels of deformation. Examples include final linings in underground civil structures such as railway tunnels that may be required to remain water-tight. The energy absorbed up to 40 mm is more applicable to situations in that the material is expected to suffer severe deformation in situ (for example, shotcrete linings in mine tunnels and temporary linings in swelling ground). Energy absorption up to intermediate values of central deflection can be specified in situations requiring performance at intermediate levels of deformation.
5.2 The motivation for use of a round panel with three supports is based on the within-batch repeatability found in laboratory and field experience. The consistency of the failure mode that arises through the use of three symmetrically arranged support pivots results in low within-batch variability in the energy absorbed by a set of panels up to a specified central deflection. The use of round panels also eliminates the sawing that is required to prepare shotcrete beam specimens.
5.3 The nominal dimensions of the panel are 75 mm in thickness and 800 mm in diameter. Thickness has been shown to strongly influence panel performance in this test, while variations in diameter have been shown to exert a minor influence on performance. Correction factors are provided to account for actual measured dimensions.
—The target dimensions of the panel specimen used in this test are held constant regardless of the characteristics of aggregate and fibers used in the concrete comprising the specimen. Post-crack performance may be influenced by size and boundary effects if large aggregate particles or long fibers are used in the concrete. These influences are acknowledged and accepted in this test method because issues of size effect and fiber alignment arise in actual structures and no single test specimen can suitably model structures of all sizes. Differences in post-crack behavior exhibited in this test method can be expected relative to cast fiber-reinforced concrete members thicker than 100 mm. Because fiber alignment is pronounced in structures produced by shotcreting, and the maximum aggregate size in shotcrete mixtures is typically 10 mm, post-crack behavior in specimens tested by this method are more representative of in situ behavior when they are produced by spraying rather than casting concrete.
1.1 This test method covers the determination of flexural toughness of fiber-reinforced concrete expressed as energy absorption in the post-crack range using a round panel supported on three symmetrically arranged pivots and subjected to a central point load. The performance of specimens tested by this method is quantified in terms of the energy absorbed between the onset of loading and selected values of central deflection.
1.2 This test method provides for the scaling of results whenever specimens do not comply with the target thickness and diameter, as long as dimensions do not fall outside of given limits.
1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
C31/C31M Practice for Making and Curing Concrete Test Specimens in the Field
C125 Terminology Relating to Concrete and Concrete Aggregates
C670 Practice for Preparing Precision and Bias Statements for Test Methods for Construction Materials
energy absorption; fiber-reinforced concrete; flexure; post-crack behavior; toughness;
ICS Number Code 91.100.40 (Products in fibre-reinforced cement)
ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.
Citing ASTM Standards
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