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Significance and Use
5.1 The high-temperature capabilities of advanced ceramics are a key performance benefit for many demanding engineering applications. In many of those applications, advanced ceramics will have to perform across a broad temperature range. The thermal expansion, thermal diffusivity/conductivity, specific heat, and emittance/emissivity are crucial engineering factors in integrating ceramic components into aerospace, automotive, and industrial systems
5.2 This guide is intended to serve as a reference and information source for testing the thermal properties of advanced ceramics, based on an understanding of the relationships between the composition and microstructure of these materials and their thermal properties.
5.3 The use of this guide assists the testing community in correctly applying the ASTM thermal test methods to advanced ceramics to ensure that the thermal test results are properly measured, interpreted, and understood. This guide also assists the user in selecting the appropriate thermal test method to evaluate the particular thermal properties of the advanced ceramic of interest.
5.4 The thermal properties of advanced ceramics are critical data in the development of ceramic components for aerospace, automotive, and industrial applications. In addition, the effect of environmental exposure on thermal properties of the advanced ceramics must also be assessed.
1.1 This guide covers the thermal property testing of advanced ceramics, to include monolithic ceramics, particulate/ whisker-reinforced ceramics, and continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic composites. It is intended to provide guidance and information to users on the special considerations involved in determining the thermal properties of these ceramic materials.
1.2 Five thermal properties (specific heat capacity, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, thermal expansion, and emittance/emissivity) are presented in terms of their definitions and general test methods. The relationship between thermal properties and the composition, microstructure, and processing of advanced ceramics (monolithic and composite) is briefly outlined, providing guidance on which material and specimen characteristics have to be considered in evaluating the thermal properties of advanced ceramics. Additional sections describe sampling considerations, test specimen preparation, and reporting requirements.
1.3 Current ASTM test methods for thermal properties are tabulated in terms of test method concept, testing range, specimen requirements, standards/reference materials, capabilities, limitations, precision, and special instructions for monolithic and composite ceramics.
1.4 This guide is based on the use of current ASTM standards for thermal properties where appropriate and on the development of new test standards where necessary. It is not the intent of this guide to rigidly specify particular thermal test methods for advanced ceramics. Guidance is provided on how to utilize the most commonly available ASTM thermal test methods, considering their capabilities and limitations.
1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. See IEEE/ASTM SI 10.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
C177 Test Method for Steady-State Heat Flux Measurements and Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Guarded-Hot-Plate Apparatus
C182 Test Method for Thermal Conductivity of Insulating Firebrick
C201 Test Method for Thermal Conductivity of Refractories
C202 Test Method for Thermal Conductivity of Refractory Brick
C351 Test Method for Mean Specific Heat of Thermal Insulation
C372 Test Method for Linear Thermal Expansion of Porcelain Enamel and Glaze Frits and Fired Ceramic Whiteware Products by the Dilatometer Method
C373 Test Method for Water Absorption, Bulk Density, Apparent Porosity, and Apparent Specific Gravity of Fired Whiteware Products
C408 Test Method for Thermal Conductivity of Whiteware Ceramics
C518 Test Method for Steady-State Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Heat Flow Meter Apparatus
C714 Test Method for Thermal Diffusivity of Carbon and Graphite by Thermal Pulse Method
C767 Test Method for Thermal Conductivity of Carbon Refractories
C1044 Practice for Using a Guarded-Hot-Plate Apparatus or Thin-Heater Apparatus in the Single-Sided Mode
C1045 Practice for Calculating Thermal Transmission Properties Under Steady-State Conditions
C1113 Test Method for Thermal Conductivity of Refractories by Hot Wire (Platinum Resistance Thermometer Technique)
C1114 Test Method for Steady-State Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Thin-Heater Apparatus
C1130 Practice for Calibrating Thin Heat Flux Transducers
C1145 Terminology of Advanced Ceramics
C1300 Test Method for Linear Thermal Expansion of Glaze Frits and Ceramic Whiteware Materials by the Interferometric Method
D2766 Test Method for Specific Heat of Liquids and Solids
E122 Practice for Calculating Sample Size to Estimate, With Specified Precision, the Average for a Characteristic of a Lot or Process
E228 Test Method for Linear Thermal Expansion of Solid Materials With a Push-Rod Dilatometer
E289 Test Method for Linear Thermal Expansion of Rigid Solids with Interferometry
E408 Test Methods for Total Normal Emittance of Surfaces Using Inspection-Meter Techniques
E423 Test Method for Normal Spectral Emittance at Elevated Temperatures of Nonconducting Specimens
E473 Terminology Relating to Thermal Analysis and Rheology
E831 Test Method for Linear Thermal Expansion of Solid Materials by Thermomechanical Analysis
E1142 Terminology Relating to Thermophysical Properties
E1225 Test Method for Thermal Conductivity of Solids by Means of the Guarded-Comparative-Longitudinal Heat Flow Technique
E1269 Test Method for Determining Specific Heat Capacity by Differential Scanning Calorimetry
E1461 Test Method for Thermal Diffusivity by the Flash Method
E1530 Test Method for Evaluating the Resistance to Thermal Transmission of Materials by the Guarded Heat Flow Meter Technique
IEEE/ASTMSI 10 Standard for Use of the International System of Units (SI) (The Modern Metric System)
ICS Number Code 81.060.30 (Advanced ceramics)