5.1 A broad classification of AM systems based on the initial form of feedstock material (material with which the part is built) is: 5.1.1 Powder-Based AM SystemsMetals, polymers, and ceramics: 184.108.40.206 Selective laser melting (SLM) (metals); 220.127.116.11 Electron beam melting (EBM) (metals); 18.104.22.168 Directed energy deposition (metals): (1) Laser engineered net shaping (LENS) and (2) Rapid plasma deposition (RPD); 22.214.171.124 Selective laser sintering (SLS) (polymers); 126.96.36.199 Multi-jet fusion technology (polymers); and 188.8.131.52 Binder jetting (ceramics). 5.1.2 Liquid-Based (Vat Polymerization) AM SystemsResins and photopolymers: 184.108.40.206 Stereo lithography apparatus (SLA) (photopolymers), 220.127.116.11 Direct light processing (DLP) (photopolymers), and 18.104.22.168 Continuous liquid interface production (CLIP) (photopolymers). 5.1.3 Solid-Based AM SystemsWires, laminates, and pellets: 22.214.171.124 Fused deposition modeling (FDM) (polymers-wire), 126.96.36.199 Electron beam wire feed (EBAM) (metals-wire), 188.8.131.52 Laminated object manufacturing (LOM) (laminates-paper and plastics), and 184.108.40.206 Ultrasonic consolidation (UC) (metals). 5.2 AM facilities that use powder bed fusion (PBF) process to create parts make use of metal powders (in SLM) and polymer powders (in SLS) as feedstock material. 5.3 A variety of metals and alloys including aluminum, cobalt, nickel, stainless steel, and titanium are used in the SLM process. The building process generally takes place in an inert atmosphere using gases such as nitrogen, argon, and so forth. Nitrogen is typically used for stainless steel, nickel alloys, and cobalt chrome. Argon is used when fabricating parts using aluminum and titanium powders. The AM system, raw powder, filter system, and ancillary AM equipment (for example, wet separator vacuum) all pose safety and environmental hazards that shall be covered by this guide. 5.4 The SLS process uses various polymer powders such as polyamide 12 (Nylon12), polyamide 11, polyamide 12 with aluminum/carbon fiber/glass bead, polyether ether ketone (PEEK), thermoplastic poly urethane (TPU), thermoplastic elastomer (TPE), polycarbonate, polyether block amide (PEBA), and so forth to produce plastic parts. 5.5 The binder jet process uses a number of ceramic powders (in addition to metal powders) for printing of parts. Commonly used ceramic materials include, but are not limited to, aluminum oxide, calcium sulfate, silica, ceramic sand, gypsum, and glass.
The title and scope are in draft form and are under development within this ASTM Committee.
Date Initiated: 06-05-2020
Technical Contact: Kenneth Vessey
Ballot: F42 (20-07)
Status: Will Reballot Item
Ballot: F42 (21-05)
Status: Will Reballot Item
Ballot: F42 (22-08)
Status: Negative Votes Need Resolution