Work Item
ASTM WK84260

New Test Method for Standard Digital Reference Images for Aluminum Fusion Welds

1. Scope

1.1 These digital reference images illustrate various types and severity levels of discontinuities in aluminum fusion welds that may be revealed by digital radiographic examination. These digital reference images do not specify the acceptable level of these discontinuities, rather they provide a visual reference for communicating the acceptable level.
1.2 These digital reference images are based on two nominal weld thicknesses in wrought aluminum products and are applicable to the thickness ranges shown in Table 1. The welds were produced using base material plates of 6061 and 5083 alloys and 5356 and 4043 gas metal-arc (GMA) electrodes. These digital reference images are intended for use in evaluating digital radiographs of welds in wrought aluminum products. They are not recommended for use with repair welds in cast materials; however, they are appropriate for use with assembly or fabrication welds. Digital Reference images for aluminum and magnesium castings are available in Reference Radiographs E2422 and E2973.

TABLE 1 Applicable Thickness Ranges
Illustration Thickness,
in. (mm) Base Material Thickness, in. (mm)
0.125 (3.2)
0.50 (12.7)? to and including 0.375 (9.5)
over 0.375 (9.5) to and including 0.75 (19)
1.3 The adjunct contains illustrations of representative graded and ungraded discontinuities. Table 2 lists the discontinuity types and severities illustrated for each thickness of base material. Each of the graded discontinuity types has five severity levels, 1 through 5, in order of increasing severity. The ungraded discontinuities are included for informational purposes.

TABLE 2 Types of Discontinuities Illustrated for Each Thickness of Base Material
Discontinuity Type Base Material Thickness, in. (mm) and
0.125 (3.2) 0.50 (12.7)
Fine scattered porosity Grades 1 through 5 Grades 1 through 5
Coarse scattered porosity ... Grades 1 through 5
Aligned porosity Grades 1 through 5 Grades 1 through 5
Clustered porosity ... Ungraded
Incomplete penetration Ungraded Ungraded
Tungsten inclusions ... Ungraded
Undercut Ungraded Ungraded
Cracks (longitudinal and
transverse) Ungraded Ungraded
Crater crack ... Ungraded
1.4 Units - The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
1.5 All areas of this standard may be open to agreement between the cognizant engineering organization and the supplier, or specific direction from the cognizant engineering organization. These items should be addressed in the purchase order or the contract.
1.6 These digital reference images are not intended to illustrate the types and degrees of discontinuities found in aluminum fusion welds when performing film radiography. If performing film radiography of such weldments, refer to Reference Radiographs E1648.
1.7 Only licensed copies of the software and images shall be utilized for production inspection. A copy of the ASTM/User license agreement shall be kept on file for audit purposes. (See Note 1.)
NOTE 1—The set of digital reference images consists of eight digital data files, and software to load the desired format and specific instructions on the loading process. The eight reference image pages illustrate both graded discontinuities and ungraded discontinuities. Available from ASTM International Headquarters, Order No: RREXXXX.
1.8 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.9 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


aluminum; discontinuities; radiograph density; digital reference images; digital radiography; welds; X-ray


This document will provide for digital reference images for aluminum fusion welds based on the images in E1648. The new standard will be suitable for use when aluminum welds are evaluated using digital radiographic methods.

The title and scope are in draft form and are under development within this ASTM Committee.


Developed by Subcommittee: E07.02

Committee: E07

Staff Manager: Kristy Straiton

Work Item Status

Date Initiated: 11-21-2022

Technical Contact: Thomas Jones