Immunological properties of DNA and RNA cubes synthesized according to Standard Practice for the preparation of NANPs and their characterization by native-PAGE are well characterized. Therefore, these materials are recommended to be used as benchmark reference materials for analysis according to the Standard Practice for the Preparation and Analysis of Culture Supernatants for the Presence of Cytokine Biomarkers by NANPs in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs). When free from contamination with endotoxins and used without a delivery carrier, NANPs are immunoquiescent. After complexation with a carrier that ensures the delivery of NANPs into PBMCs, NANPs acquire immunostimulatory properties. Immunostimulation of intracellularly-delivered NANPs is determined by their physicochemical properties, such as composition (e.g., DNA vs. RNA), dimensionality (e.g., 3D vs. 2D vs. fibrous), and size (e.g., molecular weight of NANPs and their hydrodynamic radii) . The platform for NANPs delivery into the cells, which has historically been a hurdle for therapeutic nucleic acids, is an additional means to tailoring NANP immunorecognition. Identifying and understanding NANPs immunorecognition is important for both the safety and efficacy of NANPs-based therapeutics. NANPs capabilities of inducing cytokines along with the knowledge of the regulation of these properties via a delivery carrier provide important information for NANPs use in vaccines and immunotherapies. Intended users.
The title and scope are in draft form and are under development within this ASTM Committee.