SYMPOSIA PAPER Published: 01 January 1962

Deep Bench Marks in Clay and Permafrost Areas


This paper describes the design and use of deep bench marks by the Division of Building Research of the National Research Council of Canada. The bench marks consist of an inner pipe protected by an outer casing from the effects of seasonal ground movements and frost action. In sensitive clays the bench mark is installed by jacking or driving the outer casing with relatively simple equipment. In stiffer clays it is inserted in an augered hole and then turned and pushed to refusal with a drill rig. In permafrost areas, the bench mark is placed in a drilled or steamed hole to a depth at which the lower portion of the inner rod is securely anchored in the perennially frozen ground. Details of bench mark assemblies and installation techniques for soft clays, stiff clays, and frozen ground are described.

Author Information

Bozozuk, M.
National Research Council, Canada
Johnston, G.
National Research Council, Canada
Hamilton, J.
National Research Council, Canada
Price: $25.00
Contact Sales
Reprints and Permissions
Reprints and copyright permissions can be requested through the
Copyright Clearance Center
Developed by Committee: D18
Pages: 265–279
DOI: 10.1520/STP47045S
ISBN-EB: 978-0-8031-6904-3
ISBN-13: 978-0-8031-6598-4