SYMPOSIA PAPER Published: 01 January 1962

Use of Slope Indicator to Measure Movements in Earth Slopes and Bulkheads


The paper describes some experiences in using the Wilson slope indicator apparatus to measure movements in earth slopes and in steel sheet pile bulkheads. In two cases involving an earth slope and a highway fill, horizontal ground movements were measured. In one case a high earth slope containing an important water main was instrumented to detect possible movement caused by construction. Results of observations are presented in graphical form. It is believed that the examples given illustrate the practicality of measuring ground movements with the slope indicator. The instrument is also used to measure the deflected shapes and bending moments in steel sheet pile bulkheads. Five examples, representing a variety of bulkheads and soil conditions, are described briefly. All the structures are located in Hamilton Harbour, Ontario. The process of converting instrument readings to bending moment in the sheet piling is also discussed, and actual results of measured, deflected shapes, and observed bending moments are given.

Author Information

Henderson, R.
Department of Public Works, Toronto, Canada
Matich, M.
Geocon Ltd, Montreal, Canada
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Developed by Committee: D18
Pages: 166–186
DOI: 10.1520/STP47039S
ISBN-EB: 978-0-8031-6904-3
ISBN-13: 978-0-8031-6598-4