This question is a challenge to everyone connected with fluid power hydraulics—fluid suppliers, component manufacturers, designers, and research people, as well as users. This seems a good time to examine our present position and to determine whether we are all doing our full share for the future of hydraulic power. World War II triggered a tremendous expansion of the use of fluid power for actuating and controlling mechanisms in a wide range of applications. The metalworking industry rapidly converted many machine functions to hydraulic actuation. An increasing number of large presses, die-casting machines, and similar equipment are being designed to use fluid power. The widespread use of fluid power in aircraft is continuing and is being extended to the guided missile and satellite field. More and more marine equipment, such as steering gear, winches, hoists, and other equipment drives, retractable pilot houses, and automatic hatch-cover equipment, is hydraulically powered. Hydraulic power on agricultural equipment has helped to mechanize the farm. This very substantial and expanding field has generated new pumps and other hydraulic components to meet requirements which differ substantially from the industrial and aircraft fields. Similar to the needs of the farmer are those of the contractor in the construction field where hydraulic control of many items has been very beneficial. Encountered in these fields are problems of low-temperature starting and a wide range of operating temperatures not normally encountered in most industrial applications. Such problems are particularly severe in the aircraft and missile field. This aspect of the use of fluid power will be discussed in further detail later.