Procedures of solvent extraction and infrared analysis for identification of organic additions in cement and admixtures in hardened concrete were developed. Three extraction procedures—chloroform, acid-chloroform, and sodium-carbonate anion-exchange are detailed in the appendixes. Using these procedures a number of organic compounds have been identified. The sodium-carbonate anion-exchange procedure is almost entirely restricted to lignosulfonates. Once a compound is identified, quantitative analysis by other methods can be performed, if it can be extracted completely and is the only one present.
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