The initial development of electron probe analysis was begun in 1949 by Castaing, who has continued to make very large contributions to the theory and practice of the method. Interest in microprobe techniques has grown considerably in the past few years, and there are now more than ten commercial models available. This paper reviews the electron optical factors important to the design and performance of an electron probe, including those that affect lens working distance, probe size and intensity, and contrast in scanning images.
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