SYMPOSIA PAPER Published: 01 January 1963

Characteristics of Frequency Control Devices for Satellite Environments


The problem of precision frequency generation is usually solved by using a quartz crystal controlled oscillator. These oscillators may vary in frequency from 4 kc to 300 Mc and in day-to-day average stability from a few parts in a million (ppm) to less than 0.01 parts in a billion (ppb). The frequency stability of these units depends both on their external conditions and internal structure. These include ambient temperature, vibration, circuit parameters, microstructure of the quartz, and the distribution of contamination within the crystal unit enclosure(1).

Author Information

Spencer, W.
Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., Allentown, Pa.
Reynolds, R.
Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., Allentown, Pa.
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Developed by Committee: F01
Pages: 155–164
DOI: 10.1520/STP44491S
ISBN-EB: 978-0-8031-6211-2
ISBN-13: 978-0-8031-6139-9