The problem of precision frequency generation is usually solved by using a quartz crystal controlled oscillator. These oscillators may vary in frequency from 4 kc to 300 Mc and in day-to-day average stability from a few parts in a million (ppm) to less than 0.01 parts in a billion (ppb). The frequency stability of these units depends both on their external conditions and internal structure. These include ambient temperature, vibration, circuit parameters, microstructure of the quartz, and the distribution of contamination within the crystal unit enclosure(1).
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