SYMPOSIA PAPER Published: 01 January 1960

Present Methods of Metallographic Specimen Preparation for Retention and Identification of Inclusions in Steel


The procedures used by five bearing companies, three steel companies, and one aircraft engine builder were examined and studied for the establishment of the most useful metallographic specimen preparation for retention and identification of inclusions in steel.

An attempt was made to incorporate and correlate the various techniques into four basic methods, all referring to the procedure specified in ASTM Recommended Practice E 45.2 No attempt was made to determine the economics of one method as compared to another, but rather to point out the various techniques used to produce satisfactory metallographic specimens for determination and identification of inclusions in steel when compared to the readings specified on the Jernkontoret chart.

Each laboratory procedure was studied and categorized in accordance with the seven basic stages of specimen preparation. The metallographic examination and procedure for identification of nonmetallic inclusions is presented. From the suggestions and recommendations contained in this paper, laboratories may attempt to improve their present method and reach a more common over-all method in preparing metallographic specimens.

Author Information

Brandenburg, C, F
Allison Division, General Motors Corp., Indianapolis, Ind.
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Developed by Committee: E04
Pages: 29–36
DOI: 10.1520/STP44349S
ISBN-EB: 978-0-8031-5959-4
ISBN-13: 978-0-8031-6113-9