Tremendous amounts of materials in bulk lots pass from vendor to vendee, and millions of dollars are paid out daily by purchasers, on the basis of the average quality of the products being exchanged. Continuous manufacturing processes are developed and their operations calculated on the basis of the average quality of the raw materials fed into the process. The average quality of these materials is expected to determine to a considerable degree the quality of the finished products resulting from the process. The charging of coke, limestone, scrap, pig iron, and other materials into a cupola, and the resulting cast iron coming from the cupola, is an example of this. The average quality of the ingredients charged into the cupola will determine, largely, the quality of the cast iron produced.
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