The processes of thermal metallurgical treatment of metallic ores and concentrates to accomplish the recovery of the metals consist of three general divisions or steps:
1. Roasting of the ores or concentrates.
2. Smelting of the ores or concentrates:
(a) Reduction to matte followed by conversion of the matte to crude metal.
(b) Direct reduction to the crude or refined metal.
3. Refining of the crude metal.
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