Direct shear tests were performed on soil to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe surfaces to study pipe-to-soil friction. Soil type and moisture content were varied. The resulting data were used to formulate design parameters for PVC pipe thrust restrained systems installed in a wide range of soil types. Soil types are identified by ASTM D2487, "Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes". Design methods, equations, and recommendations are presented for horizontal bends, tees, vertical offsets and other combinations of pipe and fittings.
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