SYMPOSIA PAPER Published: 01 January 1996

Computer Simulation of the Loads on the ACL During Backward Falls Based on an Open Kinematic Chain Model


This study uses computer simulations to examine the influence that specific equipment modifications and skiing variables could have on the loads on the anterior cruciate knee ligament (ACL) during a boot-induced anterior drawer (BIAD) incident. A commercial software package is used to model the skier as an open kinematic chain of pin-jointed links to simulate the forces acting on the knee during a BIAD incident. Several initial velocities of the skier, different snow surface slopes, ski afterbody stiffness, boot stiffness, and binding toepiece stiffness and damping are used and their influence on the simulated loading during a BIAD incident is noted. The higher the speeds, or the stiffer the equipment components are, the higher is the simulated anterior shearing force at the knee, with a supposed greater risk of injury to the ACL.

Author Information

Webster, JD
Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA
Brown, CA
Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA
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Developed by Committee: F27
Pages: 254–269
DOI: 10.1520/STP37935S
ISBN-EB: 978-0-8031-5560-2
ISBN-13: 978-0-8031-0429-7