SYMPOSIA PAPER Published: 01 January 1973

Determination of Relative Density of Sand Below Groundwater Table


In-place densities of a fine sand placed as dumped fill partly below and above water in Lake Michigan were determined by the sand cone method. In order to excavate below the water table, a ring wall was frozen to below the 21 ft of sand into the underlying clay. Cores were taken from the frozen wall for comparison with sand cone densities. In addition, tube samples were taken outside the freeze wall with a hydraulic piston sampler, and standard penetration tests were made in the holes drilled for the freeze pipes. Densities obtained were converted to relative densities. Results from the frozen sand cores, when corrected for water expansion due to freezing, agreed with the densities from the sand cone tests. The tube sample densities agreed reasonably well with the sand cone densities. The relative density varied from 40 percent at the water table to 90 percent at the bottom of the sand.

Author Information

Osterberg, JO
Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill.
Varaksin, S
Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill.
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Developed by Committee: D18
Pages: 364–378
DOI: 10.1520/STP37883S
ISBN-EB: 978-0-8031-5534-3
ISBN-13: 978-0-8031-0081-7