SYMPOSIA PAPER Published: 01 January 1973

Uniformity of Saturated Sand Specimens


Methods for checking the uniformity of saturated sand specimens during their preparation and at various stages of cyclic loading triaxial, simple shear, and shake table liquefaction tests are presented. These methods involve the use of a gelatin solution to solidify the specimen so that it can be removed from the test apparatus for determination of the void ratio distribution. A soil strain apparatus was also used to monitor the deformations induced within the large shake table specimens during testing. The preparation methods adopted for the liquefaction tests resulted in the production of uniform test specimens. However, changes in the specimen's void ratio distribution during a cyclic loading liquefaction test can result in the formation of a nonuniform specimen with a loose top layer. Such loose zones can lead to a significant reduction in the resistance to liquefaction of saturated sands.

Author Information

Emery, JJ
McMaster University, Hamilton
Liam Finn, WD
Faculty of Applied Science, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
Lee, KW
University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
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Developed by Committee: D18
Pages: 182–194
DOI: 10.1520/STP37873S
ISBN-EB: 978-0-8031-5534-3
ISBN-13: 978-0-8031-0081-7