In this paper we combine surface analytical techniques (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, optical and electron microscopy) with viable counts and statistical ANOVA methods to determine the propensity for biological adhesion on zirconium alloy surfaces. We compare the adhesion of laboratory and clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Zircaloy-2 and Zircadyne-705 materials. Thermal oxidation of the alloys prior to exposure to biological species is also investigated. We present data for 72-h incubation of bacteria and alloys in both shaken and stationary environments. The results of our statistical analysis and experimental observations are relevant to the use of zirconium-based materials for biomedical applications.