SYMPOSIA PAPER Published: 01 January 1979

Forging and Processing of High-Temperature Alloys


Optimum properties of superalloys are derived from the interactions of the composition, thermomechanical deformation, and heat treatment. Nickel-base alloys contain a variety of elements in a large number of combinations to produce various desired effects. The general characteristics of any specific precipitation hardening heat-resisting alloy is determined by its composition. Microstructural variations in forging stock can further influence forging and heat treatment response. Specific alloy composition, as affected by heat treatment, is characterized by the time-temperature relationship to produce various phases and compounds. Chemical banding and carbide distribution, for example, contribute to directional property variations through differential response to heat treatment. Structural response relative to final property effects is also influenced by recrystallization brought about through use of selected thermomechanical processing parameters. Special controls are required under these circumstances to ensure satisfactory structural uniformity in forged components of complex configurations. These combined effects of composition, deformation, and heat treatment produce certain microstructures relating to the final desired properties.

Author Information

DeRidder, AJ
Ladish Co., Cudahy, Wis.
Koch, R
Ladish Co., Cudahy, Wis.
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Developed by Committee: E04
Pages: 547–563
DOI: 10.1520/STP36889S
ISBN-EB: 978-0-8031-4742-3
ISBN-13: 978-0-8031-0517-1