This symposium marks the tenth time that we have gathered as a group of professional scientists who share common goals and ideas concerning the protection of our nation's aquatic resources. This tenth symposium seems like a fitting time to reflect on our origins, our successes, and our plans for the future. To that end, several people who have been instrumental in shaping the science of aquatic toxicology and hazard (risk) assessment were invited to present their views on the growth of this science and their ideas about its future. This paper is, then, a collection of those viewpoints, which are set down in writing so that others may benefit from the experience of the authors and so that newcomers to this field may benefit by knowing about the roots of aquatic toxicology and hazard assessment. The fact that the science has persisted and grown over the past ten years is a tribute to all those who have contributed their time, energy, and intellect.