Stress eigenstates at the loaded end in composite materials are discussed. It is shown that a characteristic matrix equation for end effects can be obtained by the usual finite-element formulation based on the principle of virtual work and, through several examples, that Saint-Venant end effects can be easily analyzed by the method developed. The rate of attenuation of nonuniform stress distribution in composite materials is slow in comparison with isotropic materials, and it is emphasized that the evaluation of this decay by the numerical method is important in relation to the estimation of the strength of composite materials.
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