SYMPOSIA PAPER Published: 01 January 1980

Quantifying the Thermal Protection and Comfort Characteristics of Sleeping Bags


Research on an electrically heated copper manikin has resulted in a rational basis for specifying the lowest temperature at which a sleeping bag will thermally protect its occupant. The manikin, housed in an environmental chamber, was calibrated with a “standard” sleeping bag. The manikin surface temperature, ambient air, and power input readings were used to calculate the thermal insulation (clo) value of the sleeping bags. The clo value was then used in a model to predict the Lower Thermal Comfort Threshold of the sleeping bag under study. These procedures, along with recommendations for determining the comfort of the wearing apparel, are discussed. In addition, the need for educating the consumer on the meaning of clo and the possible inclusion of clo ratings on outdoor equipment and clothing is discussed.

Author Information

Rohles, FH
Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kan.
Munson, DM
Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kan.
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Developed by Committee: C16
Pages: 225–236
DOI: 10.1520/STP29276S
ISBN-EB: 978-0-8031-4786-7
ISBN-13: 978-0-8031-0794-6