A comprehensive survey is presented of current methods of fracture toughness testing that are based on linear elastic fracture mechanics. General principles are discussed in relation to the basic two-dimensional crack-stress field model, and in relation to real, three-dimensional specimens. The designs and necessary dimensions of specimens for mixed mode and opening mode (plane-strain) crack toughness measurements are considered in detail. Methods of test instrumentation and procedure are described. Expressions for calculation of crack toughness values are given for the common types of specimens.
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