Microbial control of insect pests in agriculture, forestry, and vector (mosquitoes and black flies) markets is a commercial reality. Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (B.t.k.) is the predominant microbial pesticide for agriculture and forestry applications. Novel, effective, stable, potent, and economical formulations developed for corn borer control and forest pests have the potential of significantly replacing hazardous chemical treatments of food crops and forestry. Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis is the second most important microbial pesticide currently in large scale commercial use for control of mosquitoes and black flies. High potency, effective and economic granular and liquid formulations currently being field developed have the potential of enhancing its use both for mosquito control and black fly control. The limitations of current formulations of B.t.k. and B.t.i. and the challenges in the design of effective formulations are discussed in detail. The future for microbial pesticides is good considering advances being made in biotechnology, fermentation development and formulation technology.
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