SYMPOSIA PAPER Published: 01 January 1988

Quantitative Inclusion Ratings and Continuous Casting: User Experience and Relationships with Rolling Contact Fatigue Life


The limitations of the Jernkontoret (JK) method of assessing inclusions as described in ASTM E 45 are pointed out and two alternative quantitative methods of inclusion assessment presented in detail. Close relationships are demonstrated between the rolling contact fatigue life and the quantitative inclusion assessments for 25 different casts of Society of Automotive Engineers SAE 52100 type steel. From this, the SAM B-type count shows the closest relationship with fatigue life. Inclusion of the SAM count in steel specifications has improved the monitoring of steel quality from suppliers. The quality of continuous-cast bearing steel from four European suppliers is described and rules are drawn up defining the optimum method of steel manufacture and mechanical working.

Author Information

Hampshire, JM
RHP Bearings, Ltd., Newark, Notts, NG, United Kingdom
King, E
RHP Bearings, Ltd., Newark, Notts, NG, United Kingdom
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Developed by Committee: A01
Pages: 61–80
DOI: 10.1520/STP26227S
ISBN-EB: 978-0-8031-5056-0
ISBN-13: 978-0-8031-0999-5