SYMPOSIA PAPER Published: 01 January 1990

Design Criteria for Footwear and Functional Testing on Artificial and Natural Surfaces


Twisting and cutting sports such as football, baseball, and soccer involve torsional forces placed on the knee which can result in traumatic injuries. In many cases, these injuries relate directly to the sport shoe design and the nature of the playing surface. Although there are many tests performed on shoes involved in various sports, most are performed in the laboratory. There is a distinct difference between the variables in those tests and the ones encountered in the field environment. Laboratory tests that do not take into account the actual motions demonstrated in the field cannot yield meaningful results. A relationship between the loading, surface, and performance aspect of the athlete's movements must be used in order to properly design the sole and heel of any sports shoe. By using a mechanical testing device which consists of a direct readout torque wrench and a detachable foot, one can quantitatively and qualitatively predict whether the forces created during a twisting motion on artificial and natural surfaces could result in injuries. Such measurements are valuable as design criteria for footwear in sports.

Author Information

Abraham, CJ
Inter-city Testing and Consulting Corp., Mineola, NY
Newman, M
Inter-city Testing and Consulting Corp., Mineola, NY
Pugh, J
Inter-city Testing and Consulting Corp., Mineola, NY
Shulman, LS
Inter-city Testing and Consulting Corp., Mineola, NY
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Developed by Committee: F08
Pages: 69–73
DOI: 10.1520/STP25350S
ISBN-EB: 978-0-8031-5133-8
ISBN-13: 978-0-8031-1296-4