SYMPOSIA PAPER Published: 01 January 1993

Those Magnificent Men on Their Scanning Machines


A handful of ingenious scientists and engineers, in developing scanning electron beam instruments, have revolutionized the characterization of microstructures in material research. Like an adventure game, the development of the scanning electron microscope (SEM), the electron probe microanalyzer, and the analytical transmission microscope includes tales of war and conquest, of genius and intrigue, of simultaneous and (perhaps not so) independent discoveries, and of strange and bizarre failures. The future perspectives of this art would be worthy of a science fiction story.

Author Information

Heinrich, KFJ
National Institute of Standards and Technology, Rockville, MD
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Developed by Committee: E04
Pages: 177–183
DOI: 10.1520/STP25099S
ISBN-EB: 978-0-8031-5226-7
ISBN-13: 978-0-8031-1484-5