Pioneering investigations were by Sorby (1826–1908) at Sheffield, England, followed by other European metallurgists at the turn of the century. “Dean” of American metallurgists was Professor Sauveur at Harvard. He designed the Sauveur metallographic microscope and named the investigated area, “metallography.” As Professor of Metallurgy at Sheffield University and Fisher lecturer at Cornell, 1931–1932, Cecil H. Desch called attention to the cooperation of universities, industries, and governments in research and development in science and engineering. ASTM, in general, and Committee E4, in particular, added consensus of standards of nomenclature, testing, instruments, procedures and evaluations.
The incidental views in this paper simply supplement the up-to-date scholarly historical review by the present chairman of ASTM Committee E4 on Metallography, George F. Vander Voort.
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