Low-cycle fatigue tension-torsion tests were performed on a low-carbon steel. The formation of microcracks as a function of orientation and state of stress was studied. Quantitative measurements of microcrack density and length showed that microcracking occurred in the maximum shear direction for various stress states. Transgranular microcracks were mostly observed. An increasing amount of intergranular microcracks was observed for out-of-phase tension-torsion loading. A shear-based microcrack propagation approach incorporating a normal stress effect was shown to provide a better correlation of the damage distribution of a pure torsion test.
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