A method for modeling the behavior of electrochemical systems based on electrode kinetics instead of equivalent circuits is developed, and examples of the application of this modeling method to three electrochemical systems are presented. It is shown that the behavior of simple, as well as relatively complex, electrochemical systems can be modeled on desktop computers yielding impedance spectra as a function of input quantities that describe steady-state electrode kinetics and the electrode potential. This approach, since it is based on quantities that describe the kinetics of the actual processes that occur at the electrode, has the advantage over other approaches of having a built-in physical interpretation. The impedance plots produced in this way can give a feeling of what to expect experimentally and can be useful in testing hypotheses, in establishing reasonable ranges for quantities not easily accessible to measurement, and in suggesting experimental strategies.
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