A model of additional bias flow of vacancies is proposed based on the chemical interaction between point defects and solutes to understand the swelling data observed in complex alloys such as austenitic stainless steels, where the large swelling rate of steady state occurred after the completion of a transient regime. The larger cavities accompanied with larger precipitate particles were observed in the steady state regime. Such observations can be explained as follows: the growing precipitates give rise to the bias vacancy flow due to the chemical potential gradient around the precipitates, that is, the faster diffusion of solutes to the precipitate could bring about vacancy flow to inverse direction based on Kirkendall effect. The inhomogeneous flow of solutes could form the vacancy created and destroyed zones around the precipitates dynamically. This bias flow could cause an enhancing of the growth rate of cavities located near the precipitates, which results in the large swelling rate in the steady state regime.
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