Discussed are the failure modes observed in a Type 316 stainless steel under biaxial high temperature low cycle fatigue (HTLCF) and creep-fatigue strain cycling. All tests were carried out in air at 621°C (1150°F) using thin-walled tubular type specimens specially designed for axial, torsional, and combined axial-torsional (biaxial) cyclic loadings. Results from HTLCF and creep-fatigue tests at six different biaxiality ratios (λ = Δγxy/Δεxx): 0.0, 1.0, 2.0, 2.5, 3.6, and ∞, are given. At these biaxiality ratios, crack initiation in HTLCF is a shear process and crack propagation occurs mainly in a normal mode. With the introduction of creep through a combined in-phase tensile-torsional hold-time imposed on the biaxial HTLCF cycle, the direction of the crack propagation was found to be dominated by the axial creep-fatigue component. These results are compared with some multiaxial fatigue strain-based failure criteria.
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