This paper describes the first step in the development of a strategy that uses various test methods (e.g., extraction procedures, bioassays) to provide information that can be used to evaluate directly the risks associated with contaminants in soils or to supplement risk assessments. The objective of the strategy is to provide a means of reducing the uncertainty associated with risk assessments by providing site-specific biological and chemical test data where assumptions concerning the bioavailability or toxicity of mixtures are currently being made. A preliminary “strawman” strategy is presented in which tests are organized into tiers of increasing test complexity and cost. A number of the test methods are in common use as part of various regulatory programs while others are still in the developmental or research stage.
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