The ductile fracture behavior of different specimens is analyzed by continuum damage-mechanics techniques. A model introduced by Gurson and modified by Needleman and Tvergaard has been implemented in the finite element program package, ADINA. The damage parameters of the model are measured and calculated from smooth tension tests, and the characteristic material distance is estimated from compact tension experiments.
A steel, ASTM A710, and a weld metal for the steel, ASTM A508, are investigated. The damage parameters determined from the smooth bars are used to predict the deformation and fracture behavior of notched round bars and of sidegrooved compact specimens. For the weld metal, a side-grooved WOL-X-specimen is also simulated. In every case, a satisfactory agreement of prediction and experiment is observed.
In order to investigate the influence of the stress state (constraint) in cracked specimens, a series of numerical computations of different specimen geometries and loading situations is performed utilizing the same set of parameters of the ASTM A710 steel. The slopes of the predicted J-resistance curves increase with increasing ratio of tension versus bending load and with decreasing relative crack length.