Assessment of the environmental hazard of a chemical generally involves characterization of its bioconcentration and pharmacokinetics in at least one species of fish under laboratory conditions. The size of the fish is usually small (<10 g) and, although the test conditions are controlled, the influence of changes in environmental factors such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration, and salinity are not systematically explored. While laboratory studies of such influences are not routinely practical, methods for extrapolation beyond the experimentally determined parameters would be useful. The physiological, physicochemical, and biochemical processes involved in xenobiotic uptake and elimination by fish are used to develop rational bases for scaling measured pharmacokinetic parameters to different species, different body sizes, and different environmental conditions.
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