SYMPOSIA PAPER Published: 01 January 1993

Characterizing the Fire Safety of Liquid Pesticide Formulations by Using ASTM D56 Tag Closed Cup Flash Point Method


Building codes in the United States use the letter and intent of model codes issued by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). The most recent NFPA codes restrict warehousing of flammable and combustible liquids contained in plastic. To meet these new requirements, formulations are developed to have a higher flash point, incorporate water as a a major ingredient, or are converted to a non-liquid form.

NFPA flammability classification for liquid pesticides is largely based on results of ASTM D56 Tag Closed Cup Flash Point Method.

This study used ASTM D56 to determine flash points of liquid pesticide formulations of varying composition and water content.

In mixtures of combustible and flammable aromatic solvents the flash points were unaffected by relatively high fractions of flammable aromatic content. In other systems where the formulation had considerable water content and a small amount of aromatic solvent the flash points were found to be close to that of the solvent.

This study concludes flash points of complex formulations cannot be assumed to be that of the lowest flash component. Systems must be tested individually for accurate results.

Author Information

Namnath, JS
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Developed by Committee: E35
Pages: 180–187
DOI: 10.1520/STP20193S
ISBN-EB: 978-0-8031-5221-2
ISBN-13: 978-0-8031-1439-5