SYMPOSIA PAPER Published: 01 January 1992

Laboratory Treatment and Field Demonstration Lessons Learned from a Waste Stabilization Project


For a ten-year period, 1976 to 1986, the U.S. Navy leased most of its naval station, Treasure Island, Hunters Point Annex (HPA), to Triple A Machine Shop, which operated the station as a commercial ship repair facility. Triple A generated waste sandblasting grit contaminated with toxic heavy metals (i.e., lead and copper). The grit accumulated in a 2300-m3 (3000-yd3) pile. This three-phase study evaluated the effectiveness of a sulfide-based chemical fixation process in rendering the grit nonhazardous under U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and State of California hazardous waste rules and regulations.

Two significant lessons resulted from the study. First, the unsatisfactory degree of stabilization of the lead and copper during the field demonstration was a direct result of their encapsulation in organic coatings (antifouling agents, pigments, etc.). Understanding the physicochemical form of the contaminant is as important as knowing the type and amount of the contaminant present. Second, sulfide-based formulations used in the laboratory enhanced the degree of stabilization over that which occurred in the field. During laboratory treatability studies, it is important to cure the waste in a setting that simulates the conditions that will be encountered in the field.

Sulfide binders, as shown in this study, have a role in stabilization/solidification where conventional technologies are unable to meet performance criteria.

Author Information

Means, JL
Environmental Technology, Battelle Columbus Operations, Columbus, OH
Heath, JC
Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme, CA
McLaughlin, WJ
ToxCo, Inc.
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Developed by Committee: D34
Pages: 466–478
DOI: 10.1520/STP19573S
ISBN-EB: 978-0-8031-5186-4
ISBN-13: 978-0-8031-1443-2