A critical review is presented on the stabilization/solidification (S/S) of hazardous organic wastes (WASTES). The literature on the S/S of WASTES with cementing agents containing expandable lattice clay binders modified by cation exchange with quaternary ammonium cations (MODIFIED CLAYS) suggests that hazardous organic waste constituents (ORGANICS) may form permanent chemical bonds preventing future releases of ORGANICS into the environment. This conclusion is compared with basic studies on the sorption of ORGANICS from aqueous solutions by soils and MODIFIED CLAYS. This latter literature would suggest that sorption of ORGANICS from aqueous solutions is an equilibrium process wherein the MODIFIED CLAYS buffer the concentration of ORGANICS in the equilibrium aqueous solution rather than a process forming permanent chemical bonds, thereby preventing the movement of ORGANICS into the environment. Often the buffered concentration of ORGANICS in the equilibrium aqueous solution is far in excess of drinking water standards and therefore S/S WASTES are not necessarily environmentally safe. Discussions are presented on difficulties in relating data on the sorption of ORGANICS by MODIFIED CLAYS to conclusions regarding possible retention of ORGANICS against releases to the environment. Overall considerations are then given to the practice of S/S of WASTES at treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities.