SYMPOSIA PAPER Published: 01 January 1989

Risk Factors for Ski Injuries: A Crash Course of Epidemiologic Methods with Emphasis on Comparability in Experiments and Case-Control Studies


The incidence rate of ski injuries should be studied as a function of its risk factors. Epidemiologic studies into this matter are very complicated. Central issues are comparability of baseline prognosis, comparability of measurements (effects in cohort studies and risk factors in case-control studies), and comparability of external circumstances. In experimental studies this may be achieved by randomization, blinding, and placebo intervention. The main tools in nonexperimental studies to prevent incomparability are deliberate selection and multivariate analysis. An outline is given of the design of experimental studies with increased efficiency. As for case-control studies, special attention is paid to the definition of the source population and possible ways to reduce measurement incomparability. The text provides many examples related to putative ski injury risk factors.

Author Information

Knipschild, PG
University of Limburg, Maastricht, the Netherlands
Bouter, LM
University of Limburg, Maastricht, the Netherlands
Price: $25.00
Contact Sales
Reprints and Permissions
Reprints and copyright permissions can be requested through the
Copyright Clearance Center
Developed by Committee: F27
Pages: 9–17
DOI: 10.1520/STP19448S
ISBN-EB: 978-0-8031-5083-6
ISBN-13: 978-0-8031-1197-4