In a cold winter climate, functional clothing should offer protection against external inconveniences such as rain, cold and wind. At the same time, clothing should transmit sweat produced by the human body during hard work. Semipermeable membranes offer one solution to this problem. The function of multilayer winter clothing with different surface materials has been studied in different environmental conditions (+35 to -25 °C, 1 to 8 m/s) with a skin model in static and dynamic situations and with a sweating cylinder in a climatic chamber. The semipermeable membrane increases the total thermal resistance of winter clothings 10 to 25 % in dry conditions and 5 to 25 % below freezing point in sweating conditions. The water vapour transmission is 15 to 45 % lower when using semipermeable membrane. However in calm and cold conditions the membranes have no effect on total heat flux during sweating.
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