A renewed interest in improving the application of chemical pesticides has prompted additional application research on utilizing spray adjuvants or carrier systems for enhancing ground or aerial applications. This application research is producing findings on the potential of nonaqueous application systems as well as research leads for improving pesticide formulations. Nonaqueous application systems provide greater surface coverage than aqueous or emulsion systems. While the total spray volume for nonaqueous carriers was substantially less in field comparisons, efficacy was better. In comparisons of nonaqueous carriers, mineral oil was superior to vegetable oils (soybean, cottonseed) in weed control. A number of factors can affect the surface coverage of pesticide formulations. This paper evaluates factors for relationship to surface coverage on grasses, including: (1) the surface chemistry of the carrier/adjuvant and (2) leaf chemistry of grasses. Other measurements of spreadability on inert surfaces were compared to the measurement of coverages on johnsongrass leaves.
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